Despite of credible advances in the field of cardiovascular health promotion contributed by scientific research over the past several decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains to be the leading cause of premature deaths across the globe. Low and middle income countries are more vulnerable to deaths due to CVD. Significantly elevated concentrations of hs-CRP, lipoprotein (a), ischemia modified albumin (iscMA), glycated hemoglobin (Gly-Hb), fibrinogens and decreased HDL-C associated arylesterase activity are also associated with CVD risk. Higher levels of oxidants dominated the antioxidants can be additive risk of CVD. Current studies have suggested additional risk factors namely coronary artery calcium scores, homocysteine levels, periodontal disease, ankle brachial index, B type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro BNP (NT-pro BNP) and carotid intima-media thickness. In addition, albuminuria, inflammatory markers (IL-6), (IL-18), endothelial dysfunction markers (PTX3),(VCAM) are also indicative of CVD which are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adiponectin levels also influence insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and coronary artery disease.
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