Cissampelos owariensis is a tropical medicinal plant widely applied for diverse therapeutic uses such as the treatment of circulatory, reproductive and gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic leaf extracts of C. owariensis against prolonged exposure to acidic gastric acid was assessed in male Wistar rats. This study involved 25 male Wistar rats (180-200 g) divided into five groups (n=5) A-E. Groups A and B were used as normal and test controls given distilled water while groups C-E were respectively administered with methanolic extracts of C. owariensis at dosage of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. The mode of administration was oral and study period was 21 days. Afterward, gastric mucosal injury was induced in groups B-E animals via pyloric ligation method. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of gastric tissues were done to ascertain the degrees of gastric mucosal protection or erosion using gross photographic and histological staining techniques. The gross appearance of internal aspect of gastric tissues showed mildly eroded mucosal surface in treated groups B-D but intense erosion was observed in test control group E. Consequently, the ulcer index moderately increased in treated groups but significantly increased (p<0.01) in test control group E. Similarly for histological results, the treated groups B-D showed mild or focal mucosal surface erosion compared to intense erosion observed in test control group E. This study thereby indicated that prior treatment with methanolic extracts of C. owariensis can stimulate anti-ulcer effects against gastric mucosal offensive factor such as acidic gastric secretions. This anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts of C. owariensis can be associated with the antioxidant properties of its constituent phytochemical compounds.
Dayo Rotimi Omotoso , Victor Uwagbor, Olayinka Simbiat Lawal, Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide and Itohan Grace Okojie